Up to the end of the 19th century, the evolution of the tuba family of instruments had primarily been based on experimentation and adaptation. As a result, a number of different variations on the core design of the tuba and euphonium existed across the Western world, many of which were tied to specific regional schools of tuba playing. In the interest of brevity, the following discussion will focus entirely on the major Western schools of tuba and euphonium playing. The tuba and euphonium both have been incorporated into a wide array of playing cultures and traditions outside of the global West, however, and that is a topic more than deserving of future study.

As a result of the influence of Wieprecht and his original tuba, the F tuba would become primarily associated with the German school of playing.[1] This came about partially as a result of the musical demands found within military bands (the ensemble for which the tuba was originally invented), and the symphony orchestra; the tuba needed to be an agile, yet sonically-powerful bass instrument in both ensembles, capable of doubling and reinforcing nearly every other instrument in the group. Another factor in the sudden adoption of the tuba and euphonium was the sheer number of instrument manufacturers found in German-speaking Europe at the time, especially in the eastern part of present-day Germany (a quality not unknown in modern times—the manufacturer Mirafone was founded in 1946 in Waldkraiburg by thirty Czech refugee instrument makers).[2] V.F. Červený also played a major role in shaping the German school of playing, as his contrabass tubas in BBb were swiftly adopted within German orchestras.[3] As with many instruments of the extended brass family, the adoption of the contrabass tuba was spurred on by the works of Richard Wagner.[4] Beginning in 1853-4 with the composition of Das Rheingold, Wagner frequently asked for the contrabass tuba, and often wrote parts that utilized the massive, low register of the contrabass tuba as the foundation of the brass section.[5] From Wagner’s example, many German and Austrian composers followed suit, including Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss.[6] Because of the somewhat recognizable difference in tonal qualities between the F and BBb tubas, some German opera houses would eventually employ two tubists, (one each for the different keyed horns).[7] Although this practice is not nearly as common in the modern Austro-German orchestral practice as it once was, it is still relatively common to differentiate between bass and contrabass tuba parts when writing for orchestra.

For as much as he influenced the German school of playing, it can be argued that V.F. Červený played a more central role in the development of the tuba traditions of Russia. Even before he established a factory in Kiev, Červený was exporting a large number of instruments from his factory in Hradec Králové into Russia.[8] And although Russian artistic culture would soon look to France for many of its cues, the Russian tuba of choice would remain largely as Červený designed it: a massive bored instrument with rotary valves, regardless of pitch.[9] Another important factor in the cultivation of a uniquely Russian school of tuba playing was the influence of Rimsky-Korsakov on several generations of Russian composers. As inspector of the Russian naval bands, Rimsky-Korsakov marveled at the agility of the brass players found within the military at that time.[10] He later took this knowledge and passed it on to several hugely influential composers as a professor at the St. Petersburg Conservatory—Stravinsky and Glazunov number among his students, while Tchaikovsky, Borodin, and several others were colleagues and friends.[11] The influence of Rimsky-Korsakov’s view would be felt well into the 20th century, as involved, musically-expressive tuba parts would remain a staple feature of the works of composers like Shostakovich, Prokofiev, and Stravinsky. Curiously, there is some evidence that a 3-valve Eb tuba might have been the preferred instrument for a time in Russia—according to Bevan, several orchestral tuba parts (including Glazunov’s completed version of Borodin’s Prince Igor and many of Tchaikovsky’s symphonic works) fall within the compass of such an instrument.[12] This is merely a theory, though, and regardless of the veracity of the claim, it is true that the Russian tuba tradition would come to be primarily associated with the BBb contrabass as envisioned by Červený.

            In the same way that the tuba and euphonium traditions of Germany and Russia were heavily influenced by the input of noted composers (Wagner and Rimsky-Korsakov, respectively), the tuba and euphonium tradition of France likewise flourished under the direction of Hector Berlioz.[13] Berlioz first heard the bass tuba while on a tour in Germany in 1843, and soon made use of it in his orchestration (first explicitly calling for it in La Damnation de Faust, from 1846).[14] He would continue to utilize a mix of bass tubas and ophicleides, and indeed the ophicleide would linger on in French orchestras for several decades after the invention of the bass tuba. One potential reason for this is the weakness of the original bass tuba’s low range, even as the newer instrument had a much more expansive dynamic range.[15] Whatever the case, a small four-valve bass tuba in C (pitched one whole step above the modern Bb euphonium) would soon become a standard instrument in many small orchestras and dance ensembles in France. This instrument would be introduced into the pit of the Paris Opéra in 1874, and a five-valve version of the instrument would appear in 1880.[16] Finally, in 1890, the manufacturer Courtois would introduce a six-valve C tuba, and this instrument would be the de facto tuba for French orchestras until roughly the middle of the 20th century. This instrument, while pitched in a higher range than modern tubas and euphonium, was capable of the entire range of both instruments due to the use of 6 valves.[17] As a result, the tuba writing of many French orchestral composers would feature an unusually wide pitch range; although taxing on today’s modern bass and contrabass tubas, this range was completely within the grasp of a professional tubist on a six-valve C tuba (hereafter referred to as the French C tuba). In the 1970s, an American tubist named Mel Culbertson would move to France to perform with the France National Radio Philharmonic, followed by the Bordeaux-Aquitaine National Orchestra.[18] He soon began to teach at the National Superior Conservatory in Lyon, and while there, his thoroughly 20th-century approach to playing the tuba would soon influence several generations of young French tubists and euphonists. By the time of his retirement and unfortunately early death in 2011, the tuba and euphonium culture of France had completely abandoned the French C tuba in favor of modern instruments and playing philosophy from Germany and the United States. F bass and CC contrabass tubas are the norm in France now, although the influence of the French C tuba can still be felt in the continued performance of countless French works written during the heyday of that particular instrument.[19]

            To discuss both the British and American schools of tuba and euphonium playing is to consider two different traditions that nevertheless both spring from a common ground: the brass band. Both performance traditions were kick started by members of the Distin family, a famous group of traveling musicians who performed widely as a brass ensemble.[20] By 1845, the Distin family had set up shop as a music firm in London, and the following year became the first agent in the United Kingdom to sell Sax’s instruments.[21] Henry (John) Distin took over the firm from his father in 1849, and although the firm acrimoniously lost the rights to sell Sax’s instruments in 1853, the instrument manufacturing side of the business picked up and expanded.[22] As a result, both saxhorns and, after the rights to those instruments were lost, instruments similar to saxhorns became a common fixture in the military and community band culture of the U.K.[23] Playing alongside ophicleides and the occasional English bass horn, the new brass instruments quickly established their dominance in English musical life. Indeed, the availability of high-quality, easy-to-play, and affordable instruments, in conjunction with the increasing financial standing and greater amount of free time held by members of the British middle class, led to a boom in community and amateur brass bands.[24] By the middle of the 19th century, brass band competitions at the local, regional, and national levels were being held throughout the British mainland.[25] As the competition mentality became a bigger part of the brass band culture, there was a movement to standardize the instrumentation of the ensemble. The three most successful conductors of the middle 19th century (Edwin Swift, John Gladney, and Alexander Owen) helped pave the way for a standardized instrumentation with their ensembles, which all included three tenor horns in Bb (a related descendant of the baritone and likewise an offshoot from the saxhorns), 2 baritones in Bb, 2 euphoniums in Bb, 2 basses in Eb, and 2 basses in BBb.[26] Thus, the horns listed within this instrumentation garnered the highest demand amongst the newly-enabled mass market, leading in turn to a brass culture very much indebted to the band world.

Like their counterparts across the English Channel, British orchestras in the 19th century were very much beholden to the ophicleide, and when the instrument did eventually get replaced, it was often with a Bb euphonium instead of a tuba.[27] The issue wasn’t that larger tubas weren’t around (they were, and often relegated to military and community bands), but rather that the sound and heft of the Bb euphonium fit much better with the orchestra of the time; small-bore tenor trombones were the standard for the trombone section, with the third trombone playing on a unique British bass trombone pitched in G and with a straight bell section.[28] As a result, the British tuba tradition was, for a period extending over roughly the last half of the 19th century, focused primarily on the euphonium.[29] The popularity of the instrument led to advances in design and construction, most notably with the inclusion of the Blaikley compensating system and an increasingly-large bore.[30] As the modern euphonium began to solidify in its design, the British version of the instrument soon triumphed over the different variations on the euphonium developed elsewhere.[31] That the modern British euphonium has remained largely similar to its original dimensions is further miraculous due to the remarkably convoluted chain of ownership it has endured: in 1868, the instrument firm Boosey & Co. bought the Henry Distin factory, then the largest manufacturers of the new instrument. In 1930, Boosey & Co. merged with Hawkes & Son to become Boosey & Hawkes, before then purchasing the (originally French) instrument maker Besson in 1948, along with the latter’s Salvationist instrument building division in 1960s. Through this whole period, the design of the modern euphonium underwent very little change, apart from a slight expansion of the bore and adjustments to fit the changing pitch of Western music ensembles.[32] Even in the present day, euphoniums built in Switzerland, Germany, the United States, and Japan all largely adhere to the standard design established in the United Kingdom.[33]

Around the turn of the twentieth century, the tuba began to supplant the euphonium in British orchestras, with the preferred instrument a relatively small and lightweight bass tuba in F.[34] The commonly-held theory behind the use of such an instrument has to do with the training of those taking the tuba spots in Britain’s orchestras—many, if not most, had been euphonium and ophicleide players, so the use of a relatively small tuba would smooth out the transition.[35] The pinnacle of the British F tuba would be a unique instrument in F built by manufacturer Besson in the 1930s, to the specifications of the famous tubist Harry Barlow of the Hallé Orchestra.[36] By the end of World War II, though, these instruments had ceased to be built, giving way to the widely-available Eb bass tuba (used in numerous brass bands throughout the British Isles).[37] Of particular importance to the ascension of the Eb tuba was the influence of John Fletcher, legendary tubist with the London Symphony Orchestra from 1968 to his untimely death in 1987.[38] Throughout his career, Fletcher was involved in modernizing and improving the design of the Besson/Boosey & Hawkes compensating Eb, so much so that the standard Besson compensating Eb is still referred to as the “Fletcher” model.[39]  From shortly before Fletcher’s time to the present day, the British tuba school would be aligned with the Eb bass tuba. However, with the eventual globalization and standardization of instrument designs, orchestral tubists in the United Kingdom would also start to perform on a CC contrabass (or a BBb contrabass, owing to the region’s strong brass band tradition).[40]

Despite the insulation from the major developments on the European Continent provided by the width of the Atlantic Ocean, the American school of tuba and euphonium playing grew steadily throughout the 19th century. A major early influence on the development of an identifiable American low brass identity was the Dodworth Band, a family-run brass band popular during the middle of the 19th century.[41] In particular, it was the over-the-shoulder (OTS) instruments developed by the Dodworths that proved to have a lasting impression on American brass playing. This brass instrument family, devised by the Dodworths and built by the Uhlmann shop in Vienna, featured top-action rotary valves and a long bell that, when placed in playing position, would stick out over the player’s shoulder. According to Allen Dodworth, these instruments were developed in 1838 for use in parade formation, as the backwards-facing bells would be more clearly heard by military troops marching behind the band.[42] Coming in matching keys of Eb and Bb, these instruments proved to be popular well through the American Civil War, leading to several competing lines of instruments from makers such as Graves & Co., J.F. Stratton, Allen & Hall, and many others.[43] Upon the completion of the Civil War, a large number of by-now experienced military bandsmen were sent back into the general populace. As a result, an extensive community band movement was born, spreading throughout the United States.[44] Originally using the OTS instruments made popular during the war, many American manufacturers quickly began to import instruments in large numbers from Europe to supply the skyrocketing demand. This process, known as stenciling, involved importing instruments from somewhere else and stenciling on a different manufacturer’s logo and name. Many American manufacturers carried both their own in-house instrument lines and stenciled instruments from Europe, thus contributing to the eventual supremacy of the newer European-style instruments over the homegrown OTS instruments.[45] This meant an influx of Eb and BBb piston instruments, as well as the occasional CC contrabass tuba.[46]

The importation of European-style instruments into the United States would eventually lead to an increasingly hybridized tuba and euphonium culture. Later, as American manufacturers ramped up production and rolled back the volume of European imports, a distinctively American style of instrument became the default throughout the country. This led in part to the primacy of the “American baritone”, an instrument with a smaller bore than the European euphonium.[47] Such an instrument, although technically a euphonium in its mostly conical construction, was often called a baritone due to the heavy influence of German musicians and immigrants in the American band culture.[48] At the same time, the invention of the “side valve” or front-action valve cluster (claimed by C.G. Conn, though some are doubtful of that claim’s veracity) led to a uniquely American tuba and euphonium design.[49] This design has persisted to the present day, although the American baritone has largely been relegated to high school band rooms and marching band fields as the British style euphonium has ascended.

As befitting the nature of American musical culture, the identity of the American tuba and euphonium school is derived from a combination of traits from several other tuba cultures. Uniquely amongst the schools of tuba playing outlined so far, the American tuba tradition is largely based around the use of the contrabass tuba. To this day, the conventional path for the American tubist is to begin by learning the BBb contrabass tuba, before eventually moving to CC tuba (or not, as the case may be for many amateur tubists and some professional performers). This can be traced in part to the influence of a high number of German musicians coming to the United States during the 19th and early 20th centuries, bringing with them a predilection for BBb and CC contrabass tubas.[50] This tendency was reinforced by the influence of Henry Distin, who propagated the saxhorn style of instrument family pitch matching throughout the United States.[51] The Eb tuba was also a popular choice well into the 20th century, but due to the ascendancy of the F tuba at the mid-century mark, this instrument was until recently consigned into the category of a “junior band” instrument.[52] In fact, by the 1970s, the F tuba had become the bass tuba of choice for the vast majority of professional tubists in the United States, due in no small part to the influence of tubists such as Roger Bobo and Daniel Perantoni.[53]

The almost exclusive use of large, primarily piston front-action CC tubas in the American tuba culture can be traced in part to the enormous influence of longtime Chicago Symphony Orchestra tubist Arnold Jacobs, who performed on one of two large J.W. York CC tubas built in the 1930s for Philadelphia Orchestra tubist Philip Donatelli (Jacobs’ teacher at the Curtis Institute).[54] Jacobs was a highly-respected pedagogue whose influence on the tuba world is nearly unrivalled at the current time, and the large number of students that he mentored helped to propagate the use of a large piston CC tuba in the orchestra, (with the occasional use of F (or, rarely, Eb) tuba as dictated by the repertoire). A further major influence would be the work of two tubists who both happened to teach at Indiana University at different times, William Bell (1902-1971) and Harvey Phillips (1929-2010). Both tubists performed on the CC tuba (Bell on a rotary valve tuba built by the manufacturer King, and Phillips on a very distinctive Conn instrument), and Phillips in particular helped to propagate the use of such an instrument through his work as a noted pedagogue and performer of contemporary music. In recent years, some professional orchestral tuba players in the United States have re-adopted the BBb tuba for particular works, in particular the large German variant of the BBb tuba made by such makers as Melton/Meinl-Weston and Miraphone. Noted tubists Eugene Pokorny of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and Anthony Kniffen of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra held a widely-attended clinic at the 2014 International Tuba Euphonium Conference at Indiana University on the use of the BBb tuba in certain orchestra repertoire, and others (such as Yasuhito Sugiyama of the Cleveland Orchestra, Chris Olka of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, and Craig Knox of the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra) have made use of large BBb tubas in works by Wagner, Bruckner, Prokofiev, and more.[55]

Although the American euphonium culture of the 20th century initially revolved around instruments made in the United States, the British-style compensated euphonium would eventually become the default throughout the vast majority of the euphonium community (American or otherwise). In the United States, the 3 or 4-valve “American baritone” was an instrument that fit between the traditional British baritone and euphonium, (both in bore and in general size). In contrast to the bass and contrabass tubas, the euphonium adopted several different and wildly-diverging forms throughout the early 20th century, the most prominent of which was a double-belled version.[56] In such an instrument, the second bell is activated through use of an additional valve, and is often more of a cylindrical and trombone-like shape.[57] Important early performers of the double-bell euphonium include Henry Whittier of the Gilmore Brand, Josef Michele Raffayalo of the Sousa Band, and, at a later date, Simone Mantia (also of the Sousa Band).[58] Such instruments were well-suited to the theme and variations style common in euphonium solos of the time, but despite its immense popularity, this instrument would eventually be supplanted as British euphoniums from Boosey & Hawkes and similar makers would become the preferred instrument.[59]

Similar to the way in which the F tuba became the de facto bass tuba in the United States, the adoption of British-style compensating euphoniums was also spurred on by the pedagogical and performative efforts of several individual musicians. Although the incredibly important euphonium player and teacher Leonard Falcone (1899-1985) did play an American-style euphonium/baritone hybrid, it was the influence of euphonist and pedagogue Dr. Brian Bowman that proved to be the most lasting. Soloist and section leader with the U.S. Navy Band for over 20 years, Dr. Bowman would eventually become (at the time) the only full-time, non-adjunct Professor of Euphonium in the country, at the University of North Texas in Denton, TX.[60] This position (now belonging to British euphonist Dr. David Childs), would remain the only full-time position in euphonium until 2018, when Indiana University’s Jacobs School of Music would appoint Dr. Demondrae Thurman as Professor of Euphonium.[61]  Along with several of his fellow military bandsmen (military bands being one of the only places where one can make a living in the U.S. purely by playing the euphonium), Dr. Bowman helped to cement the primacy of the British-style euphonium in the United States. Since the middle of the 20th century, the euphonium has changed little, beyond a few small tweaks and additional details. This trend is very slightly changing, most noticeably with the recent small resurgence of the double-bell euphonium.[62] However, the most notable change to the euphonium culture in the United States is the tendency to specialize in more than one low brass instrument (choosing either the trombone or the tuba).

The development of identifiable schools of tuba and euphonium performance has taken place across the entire world, and not only in the countries of Germany, France, Russia, Great Britain, and the United States. Although not as prominent as the schools profiled so far, they nevertheless constitute recognizable and important departures from the supposed status quo of the global tuba and euphonium culture. For the purposes of this document, I will refer to these playing cultures as “hybrid schools,” as the formation of their practice was particularly informed by the combination of several aspects of the aforementioned schools of tuba and euphonium performance. As an example, one could consider the strong tuba and euphonium tradition of the Scandinavian countries; like Britain and the United States, the tuba and euphonium traditions of Scandinavia are built on the strong foundation of the military band, with a parallel development of community brass bands.[63] The primary instruments of choice, however, would soon be tubas of mostly Germanic provenance, giving the Scandinavian tuba and euphonium school a decidedly Teutonic sound quality. A similar trend is seen in many Eastern European countries, with a melding together of Russian and German tuba sensibilities anchored by a strong military and community band history. Examples of this hybridization include the Polish school of tuba playing centered on Zdzisław Piernik (performing most often on a heavily-modified German B&S F tuba), the Hungarian school with József Bazsinka, Roland Szentpáli, and Vilmos Szabó, and the numerous variations seen in countries including Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.[64]

Along with France, the Mediterranean countries of Italy and Spain both have identifiable, if somewhat isolated, playing cultures. As seen before, both countries have their own distinct evolutions of the Saxhorn: the flicorno in Italy and fiscorn of Spain. Both countries exhibit wildly diverse manifestations of community brass culture, starting in the mid-19th century and continuing to the present day. Italy in particular also experienced a massive amount of growth in instrument design, especially as it concerns the cimbasso. An offshoot of the Russian bassoon, this instrument developed from a valved wooden serpent into a true valved bass instrument in the late 19th century.[65] A further advancement of the cimbasso came as a result of Giuseppe Verdi’s dislike of the tuba (or, as it was known in Italy, the bombardoni). Verdi specifically disliked the break in sound between the cylindrical trombones and conical tuba, and for want of a more unified low brass sound, commissioned instrument-maker G.C. Pelitti in 1881 to construct a contrabass trombone in BBb.[66] This instrument, also known as the trombone bass Verdi, would be used for his last two operas, and would further be widespread in Italian orchestras until the eventual adoption of the bass tuba in the 1920s. The cimbasso has made a comeback in recent years, due in part to the widespread use of the instrument in many film scores recorded in Hollywood (it’s fairly directional and compact timbre is easier to record than the tuba, due to its higher ratio of cylindrical tubing and forward-facing bell). At the same time, the formerly high-priced and rare instrument has recently become much more prevalent due to lower-priced versions being produced in China.[67]


[1] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York:  Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 133-4.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid, 135.

[4] Ibid, 135-7.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York:  Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 135-7.

[8] Ibid, 143.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid, 144.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York:  Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 144.

[13] Ibid, 151.

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid, 153-4.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York:  Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 153-4.

[18] Rex Martin et al., “Remembering Mel Culbertson,” International Tuba Euphonium Association Journal 39, no. 1 (Fall 2011), http://www.iteaonline.org/members/journal/39N1/39N1melculbertson.php.

[19] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 158.

[20] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 103-4.

[21] Robert E. Eliason and Lloyd P. Farrar, “Distin, Henry,” Oxford University Press, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/A2240659.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 104.

[24] Keith Polk, et al, “Band (i),” Oxford University Press, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/40774.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Keith Polk, et al, “Band (i),” Oxford University Press, accessed November 29, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/40774.

[27] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 167.

[28] Ibid.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Clifford Bevan, “Euphonium,” Oxford University Press, accessed November 30, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.bgsu.edu:8080/subscriber/article/grove/music/09077.

[31] Lloyd E. Bone, Eric Paull, and R. Winston. Morris, Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire: The Euphonium Source Book (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007), 15.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Ibid.

[34] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 167.

[35] Ibid.

[36] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 167.

[37] Ibid.

[38] Edward H. Tarr, “Fletcher, John,” Oxford University Press, accessed December 6, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/43958.

[39] For an account of John Fletcher’s meteoric rise from horn player to legendary tubist and his, read these writings from Denis Wick (also a highly influential low brass player, on trombone):

& https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=1031237856955102&id=140534429358787

[40] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 168.

[41] Lloyd E. Bone, Eric Paull, and R. Winston. Morris, Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire: The Euphonium Source Book (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007), 15.

[42] Ibid, 10.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Ibid, 11.

[45] Lloyd E. Bone, Eric Paull, and R. Winston. Morris, Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire: The Euphonium Source Book (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007), 11.

[46] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York, NY, 1978, 159-61.

[47] Lloyd E. Bone, Eric Paull, and R. Winston. Morris, Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire: The Euphonium Source Book (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007), 11.

[48] Clifford Bevan, “Euphonium,” Oxford University Press, accessed November 30, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.bgsu.edu:8080/subscriber/article/grove/music/09077.

[49] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 160-61.

[50] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 159.

[51] Lloyd E. Bone, Eric Paull, and R. Winston. Morris, Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire: The Euphonium Source Book (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007), 10.

[52] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 161.

[53] These two tubists in particular happened to represent the two primary manufacturers of the F tubas that were available from roughly the 1950s-90s: Mirafone and B&S, respectively. Another indicator of the primacy of the F tuba is in Roger Bobo’s 1959 monograph “Tuba: Word of Many Meanings,” in which he mentions only the “F, small CC, or the large CC” as the tubas readily available to orchestral tubists in the United States. Incidentally, both Perantoni and Bobo performed in professional orchestras in Amsterdam early in their career, where they presumably might have become more aware of the F tuba.

[54] Brian Frederiksen and John Taylor, Arnold Jacobs: Song and Wind (Gurnee, IL: WindSong Press, 2006), 182-86.

[55] The clinic mentioned here was held at the 2014 International Tuba Euphonium Conference in Bloomington, IN, and a description of the typical use of the BBb tuba in an American orchestra can be found at Craig Knox’s personal website: http://www.craigknoxtuba.com/equipment.php.

[56] Lloyd E. Bone, Eric Paull, and R. Winston. Morris, Guide to the Euphonium Repertoire: The Euphonium Source Book (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2007), 12.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Ibid.

[59] Ibid, 13.

[60] Richard Perry, “Bowman, Brian L.,” Oxford University Press, accessed December 6, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/A2218732.

Also of note is the fact that Dr. Bowman was not the first full-time euphonium instructor, but rather the only full-time professor of only the euphonium. Dr. Earle Louder holds the distinction of being the first full-time Professor of Tuba and Euphonium that happened to be a euphonium player (at Morehead State University in Kentucky), a fine yet important distinction to make. Dr. Bowman is retired as of the 2018-2019 school year, and is being replaced by David Childs in this position. Also important to note is that the American euphonist Dr. Demondrae Thurman became the second full-time, tenure-track Professor of Euphonium in Fall of 2018, at Indiana University in Bloomington, IN.

[61] “Euphonium player Demondrae Thurman appoints to IU Jacobs School of Music faculty,” Jacobs School of Music News, accessed January 2, 2019, http://info.music.indiana.edu/releases/iub/jacobs/2017/09/Euphonium-player-Demondrae-Thurman-appointed-to-IU-Jacobs-School-of-Music-faculty.shtml.

[62] Recent works for the instrument include Liza Lim’s The Green Lion Eats the Sun, and Kurt Isaacson’s monkfish.

[63] Trevor Herbert, “Brass bands and other vernacular traditions,” in The Cambridge Companion to Brass Instruments, ed. Trevor Herbert and John Wallace,(Cambridge, GB: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 185.

[64] Clifford Bevan, The Tuba Family (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 143-50.

[65] Renato Meucci, “Cimbasso,” Oxford University Press, accessed December 27, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.ezproxy.bgsu.edu:8080/subscriber/article/grove/music/05789.

[66] Ibid.

[67] “Cimbasso | Quality & Affordable Brass Instruments | Wessex Tubas,” Wessex Tubas, accessed January 3, 2019, https://wessex-tubas.com/collections/cimbasso.